Change in education


The March 2012 Educational Leadership publication popped through my mail chute and I was thrilled to read its title:  READING ~The Core Skill~.  As an English teacher and reading specialist, I have always believed that reading is the essence, the core, of all learning, in all grades, in all disciplines.   This issue of Educational Leadership features numerous articles discussing aspects of reading research and practice for 21st Century teachers and learners.  As I pondered the ideas presented by literacy experts such as Tim Shanahan, Nancy Fry, and Richard Allington, one major question came to mind:

How can Professional Learning Teams, busy with the day-to-day schedule of planning, teaching, grading, and team meetings, effectively merge the Common Core’s emphasis on text complexity with skill instruction that equips students to comprehend and analyze these complex texts?

Let’s examine what the Common Core writes about text complexity.  According to the Common Core,

One of the key requirements of the Common Core State Standards for Reading is that all students must be able to comprehend texts of steadily increasing complexity as they progress through school.  By the time they complete the core, students must be able to read and comprehend independently and proficiently the kinds of complex texts commonly found in college and careers.

Anchor Standard 10 Grades 6-12:  Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

In Grades 6 – 12, this Anchor Standard for Reading is tailored for each content area of English Language Arts, History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects.

My initial question then divided into three prongs as I contemplated how Professional Learning Teams can determine text complexity while planning curriculum.

  • What exactly is text complexity?
  • How can my PLT accurately measure text complexity for our content area?
  • How will my PLT select materials that enable students to climb the staircase of text complexity?

What exactly is text complexity? 

The Standards Model of Text Complexity consists of an equilateral triangle divided into three obtuse triangles comprised of Qualitative, Quantitative, and Reader and Task.  Following is a summary of each obtuse triangle.

Features of qualitative include:

Level of Meaning for literary text or Purpose for informational text: The text with a single level of meaning and straightforward purpose would be easier to comprehend than a text with multiple levels and a purpose that must be inferred.

Structure:
Is the structure simple and chronological?  Or is the structure more complex?  Do graphics clearly contribute to the meaning of the text?  Or, do graphics demand the reader’s interpretation?

Language Conventions & Clarity:
Is the language literal or figurative?  Is the language contemporary or archaic?

Knowledge Demands:
Does the text rely on everyday life experiences or content specific knowledge?

Qualitative characteristics refer to the quality of the text and are the most challenging to ascertain.  The PLT must combine qualitative components with professional judgment when assessing the qualitative measure of a text.

Qualitative Components = Quality of a text

Features of quantitative include: 

  • Word length and frequency of words
  • Sentence length

Quantitative Components = Computable features of a text

Features of Reader and Task

  • Background knowledge
  • Motivation
  • Students’ reading proficiency

Reader and Task  = Student plus text

How can my PLT accurately measure text complexity for our content area?

For many years, my staff development partner and I introduced teachers to readability formulae such as Frye and Raygor, based on word length, syllable count, and sentence length.  After completing a series of steps counting both the words and the sentences, the results were plotted on a graph that purported the “readability” (grade level range) of a text.  There are clearly limitations to the readability formulae, for text complexity cannot be simply ascertained by numerical operation.

Rather, the PLT should utilize the lexile analyzer to compute the complexity of a text. Common Core refers to text complexity grade bands and corresponding lexile ranges for each grade band.

Text Complexity Grade Band

Lexile Ranges

6 – 8

995-1155

9  – 10

1080 – 1305

11 – CCR

1215 – 1355

How will my PLT select materials that enable students to climb the staircase of text complexity? 
  • Refer to CCSS Appendix B for text exemplars.  Theses exemplars are by no means a national reading list, but rather suggested texts that satisfy the components of the triangle of Text Complexity.
  • Compare and contrast texts selected by your PLT to text exemplars to determine similarities and differences.
  • Systematically analyze text by measuring qualitative and quantitative characteristics as well as ascertaining the reading skills of your students.

Summary

As you can see, text complexity is truly a muti-faceted issue as educators work to prepare students for college and career readiness.  By understanding the components of text complexity and working with your PLT to select appropriate texts, your team will be on its way to helping students comprehend and analyze complex texts.

Stand by for a future blog:  Strategies to enable students to skillfully read and comprehend increasingly complex texts.

(picture from lexile.com)

What exactly are data-driven decisions?

I am a little worried that the word “data” might be getting a bad and undeserved rap. Let me state up front that I am an advocate of data-driven decisions and no, I am not a left-brained mathematical mind. In fact, I am quite the opposite and once upon a time never imagined that the word “data” would EVER enter my vocabulary as a teacher.

So why am I a convert? Because I know how powerful teaching and learning becomes when teachers use student data to make immediate plans and changes to their instruction.  I will define data-driven decisions as simply using assessment information/student work to respond to student needs. Yes, there are numbers involved and sometimes even large tables in green, yellow and red that at first seem intimidating. Especially if we aren’t used to looking at students in this way! In addition, doing this collaboratively is a mindset shift.
Go ahead and test my hypothesis the next time you have student data to analyze in your professional learning communities.

Hypothesis

If teacher-teams analyze common formative assessment results in a collaborative frame of mind with the intent to reflect and plan instruction, then the overall individual teacher workload will decrease and teacher creativity and student learning will increase.

Data Analysis and Short Term Planning

1. What can we infer in general from your data?
2. How will each class approach the topic during the following week?
3. Which students need enrichment within the classroom?
4. Which students need intervention supports within the classroom?
5. Which students need solidifying in the concepts?
6. How will we group students in order to meet their needs?
7. What resources do we need for enrichment, interventions and solidification? Which team members will collect the various resources?
8. What will my lesson plans for the next week look like based on this data?
9. How will we formatively assess during the week to make sure we are on the right track?
10. How will we keep all students engaged?
11. Do we have any questions for a particular teacher?

Click here to view graphic organizer to help analyze and plan.

Now, think about this…

What will instruction look like in the different classrooms?

What will be the similarities between the classes? What will be the differences?

Did teachers have autonomy in answering these questions?

Do teachers need to be creative and innovative in solving this instructional puzzle?

How will teachers sharing the load of educating ALL students lessen the individual load?

Did you have any fun?

The answers to these questions will provide the team with information they need to plan effective and timely differentiated instruction until the next assessment.

Please let us know what you gathered during this process.

Questions about the process?  Contact us at core4all@gmail.com

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Today, as I sit down to write this post, it is February 5th, 2012, the day when the mighty Giants of New York are battling the ever-so-successful New England Patriots to see who will be crowned the champions of the National Football League.   It is amazing to see, hear and feel the energy that encompasses this culminating game.  TV, radio and the Internet are filled with expert-analysis shows, never-ending news about Brady and Manning and million dollar ads.  Even during my daughter’s high school dance competition this morning, the PA announcer shouted:

Who’s for the Giants? Who’s for the Patriots?

During a break, he even played the Chicago Bear’s 1985 SB Shuffle.  That brought back some fond memories. I shake my head in wonderment, asking myself why so much energy is focused around not only this sporting event, but the other sports from basketball, baseball to hockey.  Imagine if this much energy was focused on teaching our students and teacher preparation.  Just imagine.

I was interviewing potential teaching candidates recently, hoping to get a pulse on undergraduate teacher preparation curriculum. One thing that struck me was the inability for these future teachers to articulate the current discussions in education.  I expected these students to talk about the newly adopted CCSS, professional learning communities, common formative assessments, and response to intervention.  Or at a minimum have a theoretical foundation in differentiated instruction and formative assessment. I wanted to hear them discuss effective, instructional strategies from Hattie and Marzano.  The theme of these interviews was the candidates expressing how energetic and enthusiastic they are. These are great attributes, especially in a new teacher. However, what current skills are they bringing to the profession to help build a 21st century learner?

I have worrisome impressions they are entering a profession without any idea of the true demands and initiatives of what effective teaching is today.

If we are to improve student learning, it is not enough for our new teachers to be trained by their new employers.  It is imperative that teacher training regarding current research begins in teacher preparation courses.  I believe imbedding these five aspects in teacher training programs can make a positive impact on education.

5 aspects to emphasize on in teacher training programs

Common Core State Standards
Learning how to use the Common Core as the vehicle to drive 21st century curriculum will provide students with the necessary skills to be ready for the next level in school.

Professional Learning Communities
Today, building team autonomy is extremely important as we focus our efforts on collectively improving student learning through regularly scheduled meetings around student data.

Common Formative Assessments
Common Formative Assessments give teams an opportunity to measure student data and monitor student progress.  Discussions on instructional methodologies takes place in the PLCs when student data is analyzed.

Differentiated Instruction
What happens when a student or a group of students does not develop proficiency in relation to a set-standard?  What can the teacher do in the classroom to help the student attain proficiency?  How do we, as teachers, vary our instruction and/or content to create the best learning environment possible?

Response to Intervention
What happens if a student continues to struggle in the classroom, even after the teacher has differentiated instruction in the classroom?  What systems are in place for students to get tutorial assistance to attain the skills in the curriculum?  How are students monitored and assessed to ensure skill development?

Focusing on these five aspects will make a difference in our students and help them become 21st century learners.  I want to hire teachers that possess these fundamental skills in teaching our students to be successful life-long learners.

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As an instructional coach, one of the most common concerns I hear from teachers is the lack of student motivation. Students are not interested in the material, are disengaged, disruptive, and lacking initiative. The Common Core State Standards are rigorous standards with higher levels of texts at each grade level than the present standards in most cases. If my students are not motivated now – what is going to happen when the curriculum becomes more challenging?

Make student engagement a daily component of lesson planning

Here are the daily strategies to keep learners focused and engaged in learning adapted from The Highly Engaged Classroom (Marzano, Pickering & Heflebower, 2011).

Positive student-teacher relationships

Students are more invested in the learning process when they have a positive relationship with their teacher.  Struggling students tend to work hard for teachers they like and underperform when they do not have a positive relationship with their teacher. I am not giving students a free pass and putting the entire burden of motivation on the teacher but ask yourself these questions:

Am I doing everything I can to get to know all of my students and let them know I care about them as individuals?

 How can I gather positive information about students?

 How can I show interest and concern today?

Provide lots of SPECIFIC verbal feedback

Positive is best but any feedback that is specific gives students the information they need to improve and as a result encourages them. When a teacher takes the time to say, “That summary is excellent because you have really made tremendous improvement using your paraphrasing strategies!” shows students you really are paying attention to all of the details of their learning and they feel KNOWN as individuals. It also shows you are also working very hard to make sure they learn and students always respect that.

Tracking Progress Visually

I have found one of the most motivating strategies is to have students track their own progress. This is something often used at the elementary level but seems to dissipate as students age. Adolescents respond very well to tracking their own progress in a visual manner and many students are visual learners so this strategy really resonates with them. Most students respond very positively to monitoring their own growth on learning targets. It is a great tool for students used in tandem with providing specific feedback.

Demonstrating “Intensity and Enthusiasm”

In our data-driven culture, which I encourage, we must remember that teaching is a “feeling” profession.  We already discussed the importance of building relationships but another key component of engaging students is showing our own enthusiasm for teaching and learning. Our feelings about what skills and concepts we are teaching play a very large role in how students will respond.  Find areas in the curriculum that you can show extreme enthusiasm about. Share personal stories and make as many connections as you can to bring the material to life.

We all share a common goal; student learning.  We want our students to do well and succeed.  A combination of a skills-based curriculum around the Common Core and a focused attention in providing an environment through positive relationships and motivation will help our students be more engaged learners.

 For those of you who attended the Rising Student Achievement Conference in St.Charles, IL in December, we have attached our PowerPoint presentation here.

Core 4 All would like to thank all of you who have been reading our posts and have participated in our staff development training sessions and workshops.  We have really enjoyed meeting and working with so many great educators.  Your students are lucky to have such dedicated professionals as yourselves.

If you haven’t done so yet, please get a copy of our eBook titled Implementing the Common Core. It will provide you with a framework to building curriculum around the Common Core.

Finally, we want to wish everyone a very happy and healthy holiday season.  2011 showed us that collectively, we can make a difference in preparing our students to be the leaders of tomorrow.  We are looking forward to an even better 2012.  Have a Happy New Year.

Feeling overwhelmed by acronyms? Or are they getting easier for you too?   PLT’s within our PLC work together in order to commonly assess using the CCSS.  Thanksgiving is past and as we head rapidly towards the end of first semester, I’ve got a handle on what that sentence means.  How about you?  The CCSS make sense – all students, all teachers, all states using the same language with which to teach and assess academic performance.

SACI has become the acronym for the metacognitive step in my own lesson planning.  The more I use it, the easier it becomes to understand exactly what skills my students don’t have, yet must acquire in order to grow intellectually.

Core4All post on August 27, 2011:  “It’s a process, not a program. When thinking about how to improve student learning follow this simple process.

  1. Determine the desired result.
  2. Decide what steps need to be put into place to achieve that result.
  3. Follow the steps.

The SACI template encourages me through its structure to easily connect my instruction to achievement.

A REFRESHER

First: T-Chart analysis is done on a CCSS.

Second:  skills from T-chart are matched to Bloom’s taxonomy.

Third:  write a specific PfL statement (Purpose for Learning)to share with students

Fourth:  choose and write an assessment – like a quick, student friendly 4-point rubric.

Finally:  plan the learning vehicle – use a good solid, research-based instructional strategy.  Don’t just use it once, use it repeatedly until students walk in asking “are we Flow Reading and Questioning today?”

RUN AWAY FROM STUDENT “LISTENING”

I’ve found success using a combo of SACI instructional strategies:  “Cues and Questions” combined with “In-class practice (guided to independent).  Implementing the Common Core suggests that it is the integration of proven instructional strategies which allows “students to produce positive results and to improve their academic proficiency” (29).  Read Will Thalheimer’s work from 2003 entitled The learning benefits of questions (www.work-learning.com).  This meta-analysis supports repeated and constant questioning.  Thalheimer writes “The empirical evidence is overwhelming.  Questions are one of the most powerful tools for building learning environments and promoting successful performance.”  I’ve been combining daily questioning during in-class reading and find it keeps students “doing” instead of just “listening.”

RUN TOWARD STUDENT “DOING”

Here is a simple yet effective way to handle text, with students “DOING” the work daily.  The bonus is by the end of the unit I have a formative assessment for all students in my class written within my text – chapter by chapter, and symbols for student participation/knowledge on a 4 pt. rubric.

First:  I annotate my own text by developing questions, writing them in the margin.  Then using my “flow” style of reading we delve into our text – fiction or nonfiction – “flow” works well.  I ask students to voluntarily jump in and read aloud as quickly as they are able, reading at most a paragraph sized portion, then giving up the floor to another voice.  My current rule is “6 voices read between your voice and you reading again”.  This rule allows most everyone to feel they had the opportunity to jump in and read.  A bonus for “DOING” is an extra credit point per paragraph read.  Once students practice and get the hang of just jumping in to read aloud, no name calling by the teacher, no interruptions accept “questioning”, the chapter flies.

Students are now actively doing and while they “do” I annotate my text further with reader’s names and problems they encounter in the text.  For example, the photo above shows pages where students misread “khakis”, “accordion”, and “Hmongs”.   I circle words students mispronounce, and because I mark reader’s names in my margin, I know exactly who was having difficulty. I mention as many circled words as possible during questioning, asking students to turn to that page and paragraph of text.   On page 8 you can see I had one question ready in my margin about personification and ten words circled that students mispronounced or skipped.  I turned “khakis” into a question:  “Look back to page 8, first full paragraph and tell me – What was Lupe pulling up as he jumped over the curb to take off down an alley?”

text title Vocab Context Question Factual Question Inferential Question Student Generated Question
Kathy  + +  ≠ +
Jeremy + + +   +

My rubric (see chart) – is a simple class list in a text box of three columns in which I mark correctly or incorrectly answered questions.  I ensure all students are called on by using a homemade card deck -index cards with student names – from which I randomly draw.

Students complete chapters or sections (however your content text is arranged) for homework and return with questions of their own in which to begin the next class.

Give SACI a try and let us know how usable it is in your PLT’s work with the CCSS.

P.S.  CCSS for this series of lessons were grades 9-10 Reading Informational Text 1 and 4 (page 40)

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Can you believe it’s already November? I am sure you are all eager for a Thanksgiving feast with family and friends, turkey, stuffing, leftovers, and Parent Conferences!

If your school district is like mine, parents eagerly attend conferences not only to listen to reports of their child’s academic progress, but also to raise questions regarding the future direction of their child’s education. In my suburban school district, the Common Core State Standards have created quite a buzz. In fact, the administrators have already held three parent meetings to introduce these Standards and to discuss how the Common Core will impact student learning.

As a dual-role participant – both educator and parent – I have avidly listened to administrator presentations as well as to parent queries and have compiled a FAQ sheet you can share with parents who pose questions about the Common Core.

Please accept 10 FAQs for Parents about the Common Core State Standards as an appetizer to your Thanksgiving feast!

1. Who are the authors of the Common Core State Standards?

Led by the National Governor’s Association for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers, a competent and diverse group of parents, teachers, school administrators, educational researchers, and content experts collaborated to write the standards in English Language Arts and Mathematics. The standards were released to the public in June 2010.

2. Why are the Common Core State Standards important to our children?

As 21st Century citizens, our students will need to collaborate and compete in our global society. Schools must prepare them for college and career readiness, and these clear, consistent K-12 standards promise to enable students to achieve their academic potential. The CCSS will raise the achievement bar so education in the United States is on par with the best educational systems in the world. Cognitive strategies and skills will be uniform across the nation. As one mother commented at a parent meeting,

I moved around a lot as a child. Because of my moving, I never really mastered the division of fractions because I missed that unit of instruction. Under the CCSS, what every child knows and is able to do will be uniform in every grade, in every math class, and in every state.

3. How many states have adopted these standards?

As of November 15, 2011, all of the states except for Minnesota, Texas, Alaska, Virginia, and Nebraska have adopted the standards.

4. How are the English Language Arts standards organized?

The English Language Arts Standards are divided into College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for the Language Arts strands of Reading, Writing, Speaking & Listening, and Language. Each spoke has anchor standards which become increasingly more complex from kindergarten through grade 12. Within the reading standards, there is a major emphasis on reading informational text; being able to cite textual evidence and compare/contrast different author’s viewpoints.

5. How do the Reading and Writing Standards expand in grades 6-12?

In grades 6 – 12 the Reading and Writing Standards are integrated with the curricular areas of History/Social Studies and Science and Technical Studies. The authors of the Common Core State Standards realize that in order for our students to be career and college ready, it is imperative for them to demonstrate strong literacy skills in a variety of academic disciplines.

6. How are the Mathematic Standards organized?

The Mathematic Standards include Standards for Mathematical Practice and Standards for Mathematical Content. The Practice Standards comprise “processes and proficiencies” that are cornerstones of mathematical education and increase in complexity from kindergarten through grade 12. Components of the Content Standards, also developed K through 12, include geometry, operations and algebraic thinking, and measurement and data.

7. Will a National Curriculum be mandated?

No, there will not be a National Curriculum, only shared, nation-wide standards. Schools and districts will determine curricula that is not only best for their students but is also based on the Common Core. However, teachers will have the opportunity to collaborate on powerful lessons with teachers across the nation.

8. What will testing be like?

Assessment of the CCSS will probably look different than what your state is now using. This next generation of testing will provide students, parents, and educators a clear understanding of student mastery of knowledge and skills. Currently two consortia are working to develop the future common assessment: the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) and SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC). Individual states can join either or both consortia. These National Assessments will initially be administered in 2014. Administrators in my district believe the assessments will be technologically administered and scored.

9. What will be some of the major changes we parents will see?

• Reading: The CCSS emphasize increasing complexity of text and reading for information in all curricular disciplines. A paradigm shift will occur from kindergarten through seventh grade. In kindergarten classrooms, student will read 50% literary texts and 50% informational materials. By seventh grade, students will read 30% literary texts and 70% informational materials. The reading of complex texts will be emphasized in all curricular disciplines.

• Writing: Specific writing types will include argument, narrative, and informational/explanatory writing. The reading-writing connection will be strengthened as students utilize textual evidence to form claims and construct arguments. Writing skills will also be integrated into all curricular disciplines.

• Mathematics: Mathematical concepts will be introduced to children in earlier grades. Instruction will focus on both fluency as well as the conceptual understanding of practice and content standards.

10. You’ve discussed 21st Century Skills, but haven’t mentioned technology. What will be the role of technology?

Technology will be of paramount importance for the 21st century student who will learn to employ “technology and digital media strategically and capably.” Students must be prepared to effectively utilize perpetually developing technology to enhance all aspects of their learning.

We are thankful for you, our Core 4 All subscribers! Enjoy your Thanksgiving feast as well as the valuable time you spend with your students’ parents during conferences.

Also, a shout-out to the great teachers at Thomas Jefferson Junior High for a great staff development training session on the Core 4 All SACI framework. Great job unwrapping, unpacking and dissecting standards.  Looking forward to our next training.

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Turkey photo provided by biologybiozine.com

Halloween evening my colleagues and I embarked on the three-hour car ride from Chicago to Indianapolis to take part in Solution Tree’s 2011 Author Speak, a three-day event featuring 99 authors in the field of education.  I took away some valuable nuggets to share with my staff as we continue guiding our students towards their post-secondary opportunities.

Ten different strands in education were featured.  They were:

  • 21 Century Skills
  • Assessment
  • Instruction
  • Leadership
  • Literacy
  • Principals
  • Professional Learning Communities
  • Response to Intervention
  • School Improvement
  • Special Populations

Being able to listen to the likes of Robert Marzano, Douglas Reeves, Rick DuFour, Anthony Muhammad under one roof for one event was outstanding. I congratulate Jeffrey Jones, President and CEO of Solution Tree, and his team for orchestrating such a world-class event.

I wanted to focus on one nugget I took away from Author Speak 2011: the connection of PLCs, Differentiated Instruction, and Common Formative Assessments.

I participated in a networking session on Response to Intervention, facilitated by Austin Buffum.  We were also honored to have Mike Mattos be part of the conversation as well. Mr. Mattos made a comment on differentiated instruction at the high school level and the difficultly of it having a student load of 100-150 students on a daily basis.  He keyed on several manageable aspects that we all can accomplish in our PLCs to help our students succeed.

PLC Monthly Calendar

Each PLC should create a monthly calendar. On that calendar the team should write down the dates in which the common pre assessment will be given, when the common post assessment will be given and when student results of these assessments will be analyzed in the PLC. This calendar will provide focus and direction for the PLC as they move throughout the unit of study.

Blank Day

In addition to the above mentioned dates, a blank day should also be added.  A blank day is a day during the unit of study in which the teachers would use to differentiate instruction based on the analysis of student data in the PLCs.  This particular day may be used for cooperative learning, expert groups, or focused sessions with students who are not grasping the skills. During this blank day, we can also provide an opportunity for students who have shown proficiency in the skill to work on enrichment activities and enhance their proficiency of the skills.

I encourage you and your PLC to plan the next unit of study around a calendar and focus on these steps:

  • What skill(s) do you want your students to be proficient in?
  • Create a pre and post assessment that measures those skills.
  • Negotiate on when those assessments will be administered and results analyzed.
  • Discuss student results and instructional strategies that worked and didn’t work.
  • Negotiate on the date of the blank day to reteach and/or provide enrichment on the skills and concepts being learned.
  • Celebrate student accomplishments at the end of the unit.

In Rick DuFour’s session on Raising the Bar, Closing the Achievement Gap, he
stressed that we must be masters of time, not victims of time. We have the power to make time valuable for us and our students.

Let’s focus our attention on those skills and concepts that will help our students be college and career ready.

If you attended Author Speak, we would love to know your impressions and thoughts of the conference.

Everyone wants to work on a productive and collegial team.  In fact, I would argue that the people whom you are surrounded by everyday and the quality of those interactions play a critical role in determining professional happiness, job satisfaction and motivation to work for results.  All successful teams have effective leaders.  That means that the team leader plays a vital role in producing and sustaining an effective team.

So team leaders, how will you guarantee that your team is productive?

Listen

Teams will not be effective unless the leader truly listens to members. Does the leader know the team members hopes for the team, their fears and anxieties? It is important that team leaders not only listen but respond to their team in a way that communicates that their thoughts, concerns and ideas have been heard. It is also important that members feel that their concerns will either be taken into consideration, or if necessary, put on hold for now. This is done through pausing, paraphrasing back, inquiring for clarification, taking notes on the spot and following up verbally or in writing.

Redirect to Short Term and Long Term Goals

We know that listening is the foundation that guarantees communication and builds trust. We know that it is the responsibility of the team leader to make sure everyone feels heard and respected. That being said, nothing derails teams and frustrates hard working members more than “venting sessions”.  It is the team leader’s challenge to maintain an atmosphere of communication WHILE keeping team members on track and moving efficiently toward the task at hand. A leader needs to learn the art of redirecting. This is accomplished  by using the listening strategies above and then directly bringing the team back the short term goals as well the connection to the long term or ultimate destination. Make sure that short term goals get accomplished regularly and with visible results. Other strategies include setting clear agendas for all meetings and work days, keeping long term goals visually represented showcase how short term goals are steps on the path to meeting the larger long term vision.

All teams have successful leaders.

Model Positivity

Is there any other way of saying this again? People want to be around positive, confident and upbeat people. That is the reality. No one wants to work with or follow negative, harsh or uptight leaders. It stresses everyone out and diminishes productivity. Even if you, as a leader, are having a bad day you need to “put on your game face” remain firm, encouraging and LEAD.  When the team sees the leader losing it – you can be sure they will too.  Leaders, if you need support, find other leaders with whom you can share concerns and challenges. But when leading your team stay focused and positive.

Team leaders, are you clear on where you are going today, tomorrow and for the rest of the year? If not, no one else will be either.

Scaffold Information

Just like we scaffold new information for students we need to think how team members might need scaffolded support. Many new change initiatives bring along new knowledge and new skill sets for teachers. Teams have strengths and weaknesses and team leaders need to know when and how to scaffold in order to reach their goals. Support the team by providing information that will be absorbed at the team’s level and slowly advance in complexity, while decreasing support, as teachers feel more comfortable with new skills.  Team leaders are often teacher leaders or administrators that may be a “step ahead” of many faculty members through training opportunities. They must share their knowledge and skills to move the team forward without overwhelming people. Find the” high-yield place” where gaps in knowledge and opportunities for growth collide to produce results.

Train Yourself

It is the leader’s responsibility to stay informed and current on changes that are taking place in education. If you are lacking knowledge or skills, attend a conference, sign up a Google Alerts, subscribe to national leadership organizations such as Lead and Learn or ASCD or just pick up a book. Leaders don’t have all the answers but they need to be informed on areas of change that are impacting teachers. Team members need to feel comfortable that the leaders have the essential knowledge to support them in change. There are more resources than ever out there for educators to improve their knowledge and skills so don’t wait for someone to train you. Train yourself.

By focusing on these five tips, you will provide your team with a positive direction that will improve results.

Implementng the Common Core has helped many educators across the United States revamp curriculum around the Common Core State Standards.  Through the SACI design framework, courses have been restructured around 21st century skills that will better prepare our students for their post-secondary opportunities.  If you are interested in this resource, click here.  You can also download the first two chapters of Implementnig the Common Core for free.

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John Wooden, six-time national collegiate basketball coach of the year, lead the UCLA Men’s Basketball team to ten National Championships during his coaching tenure.  He is only one of a few people who has been inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame both as a player and a coach.  Why do I bring up Coach Wooden?  Because of this quote:

Failure is not fatal, but failure to change might be.

This quote is relevant as the themes of student achievement, 21st century learning and the Common Core State Standards continue filtering through our conversations and in the blogosphere.

Questions to ponder as educators:

  • How do we grow as professionals in a field that continues clinging to 20th century methodologies?
  • How do we reveal our deficiencies and become continual learners and collaborators?
  • How do we move away from our comfort zone and do things differently?
  • How do we collectively improve student skills and better prepare them for their futures?

Teacher Learning

I can confidently say that the majority of the school districts in the United States, in some form or another, have a mission statement around the improvement of student learning.  Yes, we want to improve learning, prepare our students to be successful individuals, help them become independent learners, but what have we done to help ourselves in that cause?  If we want to improve student learning, it requires teacher learning as well.

What is the last book or article you read dealing with current educational research and topics?  Do you have a favorite education blogger?  Which educators do you follow on Twitter?    Any good webinars you recommend?

The point I want to make is that we cannot only rely on our undergrad and graduate teacher training, or the one-day, drive-by workshops.  We can improve our teaching by:

  • regularly collaborating with our colleagues
  • discussing student data
  • sharing viewpoints about new research
  • revising curriculum around skills
  • becoming a teacher-leader
  • training your colleagues

If we want to improve student learning, it requires us to improve as well through continual reading, collaborating and processing.  We cannot solely rely on our years of experience teaching and expect to become better teachers.  Skill building is a process and it never stops.

Failure is not fatal, but failure to change might be.

Homework

Share with us a link of an article, a blog post, or book that you read that made you stretch your thinking about teaching and learning.

Questions or issues that you would like us to tackle? Email us at  support@core4all.com.

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Since the release of Implementing the Common Core in December 2010, we have had great conversations with educators across the United States.  Schools and districts are using Implementing the Common Core as a framework to restructure curriculum around the Common Core.  We would like to extend an opportunity to you this week.   If you buy an e-book this week and type in C4A in the promo box at checkout, we will give you a $3 discount off the price of the book.  We feel this is a great deal.  If you are not sure, download the first two chapters of the book for free and see what you think.

Our job is not easy. We need the tools that will help us improve our craft as teachers.  Implementing the Common Core will provide you with a framework to revitalize your curriculum and focus on the skills that will prepare our students to be the leaders of tomorrow.

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As a mother of three and a teacher of many, I am constantly bombarded by student complaints and comments both at home and at school.  So, I decided to go straight to an accurate source, my 14 year old son.  I asked him,

What tips would you like to tell your teachers to make your life, as a student, better?

And, interestingly, his answers were straightforward and made pedagogical sense!

I don’t really know what to study because I don’t understand what happened in class today.
I don’t know what my teacher wants me to do! 
I get too much homework!
The test wasn’t at all what I expected – it was so hard, I flunked it! 

Let’s investigate Teddy’s responses, one-by-one, and see how, as educators, we can improve students’ academic lives.

I don’t understand what I’m supposed to be learning 

The first way teachers can improve students’ academic lives is to be “transparent.”  Providing students with crystal clear learning targets not only give teachers a direct focus toward the goal of the unit, but also provides students with a clear vision of the critical skills and standards of the unit of study (Implementing the Common Core, 2010).

According to Moss, Brookhart, and Long, Knowing Your Learning Target enables students to understand “the destination for the lesson – what to learn, how deeply to learn it, and how to demonstrate their new learning.”  At the beginning of each unit, clearly explain the learning targets.  Pre-assess using a formative assessment that delineates the standards of proficiency.
(See my colleague’s 9/17 blog for an example of such a formative assessment).    As the unit evolves, continue to discuss, emphasize, and develop those skills and standards through the unit plan.

Quick and easy tips include:

-Write the learning targets on the white board for all students to see.
-Include the skills and standards on each handout and unit activity.
-Monitor student proficiency through formative assessments.

By the end of each unit, each student should be able to demonstrate proficiency on the crystal clear learning target.   Again, learning should be transparent and not mystifying.

I get too much homework

Let’s face it – homework is a necessary part of education, but its purpose should be to advance student learning.  Let’s focus our lens and think about the homework we assign.

Look at tonight’s homework assignment:
Quality:  Is it busy work? Does it reinforce important skills and concepts?
Quantity:  Does it take hours to complete?

Did the homework advance student learning?

Keeping the conundrum of homework in mind, I read an interesting New York Times article entitled “The Trouble with Homework”.  Author Annie Murphy Paul gives several suggestions for ensuring that homework successfully advances student learning without being hours of mindless busywork.

Try incorporating her two strategies into your homework assignments:

Strategy 1:  Spaced Repetition:

I always tell my students and my son, that learning takes repetition.  Those multiple repetitions best improve memory when they are delivered in short segments and are spaced over time.  One long cram session does not help embed skills and concepts in a student’s mind.

Strategy 2:  Retrieval Practice:
During homework sessions, students must also practice retrieving the information that was internalized during spaced repetition.  In other words, they must quiz themselves in order to actively recall the information.  According to Annie Murphy Paul, “Every time we pull up a memory, we make it stronger and more lasting, so that (self) testing doesn’t just measure, it changes learning.”

So, how can students practice retrieving information during homework sessions?

An example of an effective online tool is Quizlet.com, a website that enables both students and teachers to input essential information.  Once the information has been entered, Quizlet provides students with multiple opportunities to self-quiz in the forms of flash cards, interactive online games, as well as sample quizzes.   To see an example of a quizlet I created for the retrieval practice of Literary Terms, click on  7th Grade Language Arts.

Don’t trick me when you test me! 

What is your purpose of student assessment?
To input grades into an electronic gradebook?  NO!
To measure knowledge of trivial facts?  NO!
To punish students?  NO!

The fundamental purpose of assessment is to measure student proficiency of crystal clear learning targets that have been clearly stated and developed, reinforced through meaningful class work and homework, and finally measured via sound assessments (Implementing the Common Core, 2010).

This fall upon attending Parent Open House at my son’s middle school, a parent asked the science teacher, “What are your tests like?” After a moment of thought, Ms. M responded, “When students have been engaged in the unit of study, they are not surprised by the unit assessment.   The assessment measures student proficiency in the skills and standards we have been studying.  Most students think science tests are ‘easy A’s.’”   Hooray for Ms. M!

So what hints can we follow so students feel like our tests are “easy A’s”?
-Sound assessment measures skill growth, not just content knowledge.
-Formative assessments administered before & during the teaching process guide and improve teaching and learning (Ainsworth).

As a reading specialist and as a parent of three, I identity with both points of view – that of the teacher as well as that of the student. To improve the academic lives of your students, keep in mind 3 sure-fire ways:

  • Communicate crystal clear learning targets
  • Construct homework to advance student learning
  • Test, don’t trick

Need a resource to help restructure curriculum?  Implementing the Common Core will provide a framework to revitalize curriculum.

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Students Aware of Standards

Everyone’s saying “Common Core”… and using the standards in different ways.  I’ve been reading, hearing and thinking about the various belief sets springing from CCSS interpretation.   For instance, a Professional Learning Team within a school decides which Common Core standards their department will address.  Or, a publisher highlights which standards their curriculum will address.  But, how will we ensure students have progressed through each standard?  How will we implement and assess this incredibly complex and thorough document?  Lesson plans using the SACI template are one way to prove which and how well the Common Core Standards are being met in your classroom.

How many standards to include in a unit?

Educators all around the country have differing opinions on executing standards-based curriculum. Some feel the Common Core is meant to be utilized one standard at a time: work on the skill delineated by the standard, assess, achieve, then move to the next standard.  Others believe that students should not move on until skill proficiency is met in the specified standard being assessed.  Still others think that only short, abbreviated texts should be used for skill practice.  These approaches provide us with some questions to ponder:

How many standards can be addressed at one time during a unit of study?

How in depth, and of what length, should text be in order to assess adequate knowledge of a standard?

How does a teacher ensure that students are reading text of sufficient complexity, quality and range for their grade level?

Amidst these varied questions I was heartened to read, in NEAToday’s Summer 2011 issue, policy expert Barbara Kapinus’ snippet (p.23) that stated

Rather than reading drills, we’ll ask students to apply reading skills in a broader, ‘real world’ context.

Instead of asking kids to stand in one spot and throw basketballs into a hoop over and over, we’re getting them to play…. and

Gone are the days of summary book reports.  Students will analyze the story rather than rehash the plot.

What I like about these comments is the support they lend to my belief that skills can be learned through both strong nonfiction or fiction texts.  I believe content should be good and rich.  The goal in my classroom is to focus on more than one standard at a time through unabridged text. Work on reading skills through meaningful context is a great way to prepare students for postsecondary opportunities.

As a Reading specialist my belief is that core subjects can successfully focus on skills when balanced with specialized texts.  The old cry was:  all content teachers are teachers of reading.  The new cry must be:  all content teachers are teachers of skills needed to read within our content.  I believe that all Common Core skills are addressable through well designed units which flow around quality texts.

How will I know my lesson plan is designed to develop student skills in a Common Core Standard? 

I pre and post assess using a formative assessment that purposely delineates the standards in which my students need to be proficient.  Here is an example of my unit plan for Of Mice and Men by Steinbeck. First I preassessed student ability on the standards predetermined by my PLT as necessary for incoming freshmen. (Click here if you’d like to see a partial view of the formative assessment I devised.) Then I taught the novel, with all activities and discussions revolving around these same standards.  The unit ends when students take the post-assessment and show mastery at an 80% minimum.

Productive lesson planning

My lesson planning is productive and directly related to the Common Core because my assessment becomes the template for all my lessons.  An unmastered standard can easily be addressed over and over because of text length.  In this way, students continue practicing skills until they do attain proficiency.  Each lesson throughout a text study, is pivotal for ensuring students are competent at the skill demanded. Lessons are easily differentiated as student abilities are noted through class work and either built upon or revisited.

Core 4 All believes that standards drive curriculum, yet it takes rich content, intricate lesson plans, and detailed assessments in order to ensure standards are met.

 

 

As I write this post in my office, a cup of coffee sits patiently at my side waiting to be sipped, the sun shines through my front window, warming my back and in the background, the sound of the TV, echoing the remembrance that will never be erased from my mind.  It is hard to believe that ten years have already passed, my daughters only 6 and 3 at the time, were too young to comprehend the nature of the devastating acts that left the world speechless and stunned.  My heart goes out to the families whose lives have been changed forever, from the parents who lost their children, to the spouses who lost their significant others, to the children who lost their parents and to everyone who lost a relative or friend.

But as we do, we fight; fight to rebuild the greatest country in the world.
But what keeps us going?
Why do we refuse to surrender?
What makes us so resilient and how can we pass our resiliency to our next generation of leaders?

The importance of questioning

We must teach our children the value of questioning, and not take things at face value.  As we read, listen and watch, I urge you to model questioning and discuss with your students and children this valuable tool.  As we want our children to be critical thinkers, it is through questioning that will improve this skill.  To hold authentic discussions, there must be a balance of statements and questions.  It is okay to ask why and let our youth develop their answers.

The importance of making connections

Last night, my good friend and I had a conversation about why as a society, in general, do we accept information as the truth, whether it is in print, radio or TV? He answered that it comes to the always-on-the-go mentality.  We are taking kids from one practice to another, eating in the car, not having time to sit as a family.  In schools, we race through our curriculum because we have to get to a certain point in the text before the big test.  For our children’s sake, we must slow down and help make connections with the past so that history does not repeat itself.  As educators, it is time to stop cramming content and start building connections and help our youth develop a deeper understanding of who we are and where we are going.

The importance of entrepreneurialism

As educators, we generally play it safe.  Here is my curriculum and I will teach it.  I take staff development to increase my salary.  But, what are we doing to break the mold of 20th century teaching?  I will bet that if you are reading this post, you are only a small percentage of teachers that want to improve your instructional skills. I commend you for that.  To improve ourselves as educators, it is vital to pick up the latest educational research book, read various educational blogs and follow educators on Twitter and other social media outlets.  But, I challenge you to take it to the next level and create, build, develop tools that will help your students learn.  Become an entrepreneur. Open your mind and take the initiative. I have and it is exhilarating.

The world continues to change at a rapid pace. How we learned in the classroom should not be the primary method to teach our youth today.  If we are to prepare our students to be questioners, influencers, thinkers, and leaders of tomorrow, we must retrain ourselves on the fly.  We owe it our children to help them attain the skills to build a stronger United States of America.

I think I have to rewarm my coffee, it’s too cold.

You must be the change you want to see in the world.

Mahatma Gandhi

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n. process  pl. proc·ess·es
A series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result

There is no magic bullet in education. No one right answer or solution that will meet the needs of all schools and all children. Schools are complicated and highly contextual. There is never going to be one right perfect program that will benefit everyone.

Don’t get me wrong, I firmly believe that some highly researched programs can greatly benefit students. BUT, no one program will ever be successful without highly functioning teams of professional educators working consistently to bring meaning to those programs into a constantly evolving system.

We are fortunate to have such trailblazing leaders and researchers in education like Marzano, Hattie, Reeves, DuFour, Danielson and Fullan. But, these leaders have not unlocked magical secrets that will lead to success for everyone; instead, they have provided us with fantastic tools to make better schools. It is up to us, in our buildings, to take it to the next level. To make the jump from research to action and make positive, albeit imperfect, things happen.

Moving from research to action

We must create processes and  put into action.

It will not be a pre-packaged program. Effective processes lead to highly efficient teams. As one department in our school explains very eloquently, “Our ultimate goal is to create a highly functioning team”.  I think that really sums it up best if you are looking for simplicity. A highly functioning team of educators focused on student learning will make a positive impact on student achievement.

A highly functioning team relies on multiple processes to keep their work focused and organized.

I’m sure many of you may even be beginning new processes right now as the school year begins. Our high school is implementing a new freshman curriculum. This project alone relied on multiple processes to unfold and the implementation of the curriculum relies on all faculties learning and using the professional learning team process. It is challenging but it will lead us to the goal of highly functioning and focused teams which exist to improve student learning.

When thinking about how to improve student learning follow this simple process.

  1. Determine the desired result.
  2. Decide what steps need to be put into place to achieve that result.
  3. Follow the steps.
As you restructure curriculum around the Common Core, remember to focus your attention on student learning.  For more information, check out AllThingsPLC, by Solution Tree.
Core 4 All, LLC is celebrating its first anniversary!  A big thank you for those of you who have followed us via Twitter, Facebook and WordPress.
Also, we hope  those of you who have bought Implementing the Common Core have been able to develop great units of study around skills and standards. We would love to hear how things are going.

Ready………..Set………..Go!

Another school year is upon us.  I hope you have recharged your batteries and are ready to shape the leaders of tomorrow.  Since the inception of Core 4 All in 2010, we have dedicated our mission to helping you not only see the value in the Common Core State Standards and how it can increase student achievement, but also provide you with a framework to develop curriculum at the classroom, department and school levels.  But how do we as educators take the next step and truly implement the Common Core and make it the driving force in curriculum?

Change

I am fortunate to work for a principal who values change. Change to improve student achievement.  Change to help teachers teach better.  Change to help administrators lead better.  Two months ago she handed out two books for us to read over the summer as we work towards building a professional learning community: Getting Started, by Eaker, DuFour and DuFour, and The Collaborative Administrator, published by Solution Tree.  Each of these books provided me with a better grasp of creating professional learning teams for my own department.  But, she recently handed us a third book, Change is Good…You Go First, by Mac Anderson and Tom Feltenstein, that has inspired me to reflect upon how I lead my staff.  It is a quick read, but packed with information.  As the authors write,

…this book is about ideas to inspire, to motivate, and to
encourage…

Forget for Success

Forget for Success is a chapter that has stuck with me.  This chapter is a synthesis of a book with the same title by Eric Harvey and Steve Ventura.  They talk about how our brains are like closets and over time they fill up.  How true! As educators, we like to accumulate stuff; old lesson plans, supplemental materials, overheads.  How many file cabinets do you have that are filled with stuff that you haven’t used in years?  “You never know if I need this down the road”, is the teacher battle cry.  This year, it is time to throw away those lesson plans on yellow-tinted paper. No you will not need anything from your 3 1/2 floppy discs and you are not going to show any transparencies.

Here is my rule of thumb: If you haven’t used it in 2 years, get rid of it!

In order for the Common Core to make the positive impact on student achievement, we must clean out the file cabinets.  Better yet, not only clean out the cabinets, downsize as well.  A 21st century educator does not have old, out-dated materials. A 21st educator focuses on skills, measures those skills with sound assessments, engages students with relevant content, and uses instructional activities that promote achievement.

An Interview With A Principal

As a mentioned, I have a great boss.  So, I wanted to pick her brain about change.  Change does not come easy, working with over 200 staff members in a suburban high school setting.  But she knows that we all can do better.  Both our students and staff have the capacity to improve.  It is through systemic change that this can come to realization.  So I asked her some questions.

What’s the most important factor a principal should consider when trying to make school-wide change?

The most important thing to consider is what kind of impact the change is going to have on the students.  Change needs to benefit learning, teaching and the school community.  Time is the second most important factor. You cannot expect to make rapid change in a school. The faster you go, the less likely the change will be lasting.

What’s the most common mistake a principal makes trying to initiate a school-wide change?

One of the biggest mistakes is trying to go too fast.  It takes a considerable amount of time to research what is best, to inform staff and students to get them to understand and embrace the change, and it takes time to implement change effectively.  Pushing change from the “top down” is also a common mistake.  Telling people what changes to they need to make without their input is a huge mistake.  They need to “discover” what needs to change and have a part in making the changes.

Any last words of advice for principals who want to initiate change?

Make sure you have key players involved in making change.  Get the administrative staff to understand the need for change, and get teacher leaders involved right from the start with planning and brainstorming the changes. Set some non-negotiables in terms of student and teacher learning, but then step back and let others create the changes to fit their ideas as well as your ideas in terms of what is best for the students and the school as a whole.  Have a timeline in mind, but do not hold fast and hard to that timeline. If it takes longer than you thought (and it will), be patient!  Expect some roadblocks to be in the way, and help others get over those hurdles. Celebrate successes along the way and reward people for their hard work and diligence.  Be prepared to provide training for any new initiative, and make sure that training is an effective use of teacher time. The longer you take to plan and create the changes, the more lasting they will be.

I thank Dr. Audrey Haugan for her time.  Over the last two years, our school has been involved with a major change in restructuring curriculum around standards and skills.  We have experienced growing pains over these last two years, but have also seen great gains in teacher-leadership and collaboration.   These are exciting times in education.  With positive change, we can help develop our leaders of tomorrow.

Homework assignment (I hear the groans already):

What will you do to help make change happen this school year ?

How is your school making change?

Share our blog with your colleagues.

Core 4 All wishes you a great 2011-2012 school year.